Giải đề thi tiếng Anh THPT Quốc gia năm 2018 (Mã đề 421)
Giải đề thi tiếng Anh THPT Quốc gia năm 2018 (Mã đề 421)
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word that differs from the other three in the position of primary stress in each of the following questions.
Trong các đáp án trên, từ "disaster" có trọng âm nhấn ở phiên âm thứ hai, những từ còn lại có trọng âm nhấn ở phiên âm đầu tiên.
Trong 4 đáp án trên, từ "enter" có trọng âm được nhấn ở phiên âm đầu tiên, những từ còn lại có trọng âm được nhấn ở phiên âm thứ hai.
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word whose underlined part differs from the other three in pronunciation in each of the following questions.
Trong 4 đáp án trên, ký tự "s" trong từ "attacks" được phát âm là /s/, các từ còn lại được phát âm là /z/.
Trong 4 đáp án trên, ký tự gạch chân trong từ "wear" được phát âm là /eə/, còn các từ còn lại được phát âm là /iː/.
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions.
Question 5: Many parents tend to make their children study hard in the belief that good education will enable them to ______ in the future
- turn up
- turn away
- get on
- get out
* to get on: thành công (trong sự nghiệp).
Question 6: Susan has achieved great ______ in her career thanks to her hard work.
Trong câu trên, chúng cần một danh từ sau tính từ "great". Chính vì vậy, đáp án C là đáp án chính xác.
Question 7: The operation of the newly constructed plants is likely to lead to ______ environmental consequences.
* Far-reaching: có ảnh hưởng sâu rộng => Sự vận hành của những nhà máy mới được xây dựng có thể dẫn đến những hậu quả môi trường có ảnh hưởng sâu rộng.
Question 8: He promised ______ his daughter a new bicycle as a birthday present.
- to buy
- to buying
* promise (to do something): hứa làm gì. Đáp án chính xác là A: to buy.
Question 9: The ______ prices of property in big cities may deter people on low incomes from owning a house there.
* Prohibitive ~ expensive: đắt đỏ. => Giá cả đắt đỏ của bất động sản ở những thành phố lớn có lẽ ngăn cản những người với thu nhập thấp sở hữu một căn nhà ở đó.
Question 10: I've been waiting for hours. You ______ to tell me you would come late.
- must have phoned
- should have phoned
- needn't have phoned
- oughtn't to have phoned
Should/ought to + have + V3/ed: Diễn đạt một hành động đáng lẽ nên làm trong quá khứ nhưng đã không làm. => Tôi đã chờ bạn hàng giờ. Bạn đáng lẽ nên gọi điện báo cho tôi biết bạn sẽ tới trễ.
Question 11: If you didn't have to leave today, I ______ you around the city.
- will show
- would show
- have shown
Câu trên sử dụng cấu trúc mệnh đề câu điều kiện thứ 2 (thể hiện sự kiện không có thật ở hiện tại): - If + S + V.ed/were + S + would/might/could + V.inf. Vì vậy, đáp án C là đáp án chính xác.
Question 12: You must not ______ any step in the process; otherwise, you would not be able to cook the dish properly.
* Skip any step in the process: Bỏ qua bất cứ bước nào trong chu trình.
Question 13: Drastic measures should be taken to tackle the problems ______ child abuse.
- to involve
- are involving
Mệnh đề quan hệ rút gọn với câu đầy đủ là: ... to tackle the problems which/ that involve child abuse.
Question 14: After a momentary ______ of concentration, Simon managed to regain his focus and completed the test.
* After a momentary lapse of concentration: sau một khoảng khắc mất tập trung
Question 15: Michael rarely returns to his hometown, ______?
- has he
- doesn't he
- does he
- hasn't he
Chúng ta sử dụng cấu trúc câu hỏi đuôi trong trong trường hợp trên. Trong mệnh đề chính có sử dụng môt trạng từ phủ định nên trong câu hỏi đuôi chúng ta mượn trợ động từ dạng khẳng định. Vì vậy, đáp án C là đáp án chính xác.
Question 16: Only after he ______ the job as a computer programmer did he realise how much he loved it.
- had left
- has left
- would leave
- was leaving
Trong câu trên, chúng ta sử dụng cấu trúc câu ghép chỉ thời gian. Trong cấu trúc tiếng Anh, chúng ta sử dụng thì quá khứ hoàn thành thể hiện một hành động xảy ra trước một hành động khác trong quá khứ (hành động được chia ở thì quá khứ đơn). Vì vậy, đáp án A là đáp án chính xác.
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that best completes each of the following exchanges
Question 17: Jane is talking to Mike, who has just helped her with her luggage.
- Jane: "______"
- Mike: "It's my pleasure."
- It's too heavy.
- Thanks a lot, indeed.
- It's not my duty
- Welcome back.
Trong trường hợp trên, câu trả lời được sử dung sau một lời cảm ơn, vì vậy đáp án B là đáp án chính xác.
Question 18: Two students are talking about the school curriculum.
- Ted: "Swimming should be made part of the school curriculum."
- Kate: "______. It is an essential life skill."
- You can make it
- Oh, that's a problem
- I can't agree with you more
- Not at all
Câu trên là một đoạn hội thoại về một đề tài nào đó và chúng ta cần một câu trả lời hợp lý thể hiện sự đồng tình hay không đồng tình. Trong 4 đáp án, đáp án C là hợp lý nhất.
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.
Question 19: Judy has just won a full scholarship to one of the most prestigious universities in the country; she must be on cloud nine now.
- extremely panicked
- desperately sad
- obviously delighted
- incredibly optimistic
Trong câu trên, chúng ta cần một cụm từ có ý nghĩa trái ngược với cụm từ: on cloud nine (cực kỳ vui, phấn khích). Vì vậy, đáp án chính xác là desperately sad (buồn da diết).
Question 20: People nationwide have acted without hesitation to provide aids for the victims in the disaster-stricken areas.
Trong câu trên, chúng ta cần một danh từ có ý nghĩa trái ngược với hesitation (ấp úng, lưỡng lự). Vì vậy, đáp án C: willingness (sẵn lòng) là đáp án chính xác.
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.
Question 21: The football final has been postponed until next Sunday due to the heavy snowstorm.
Trong các đáp án trên, postponed = delayed (trì hoãn). Vì vậy, đáp án chính xác là đáp án D.
Question 22: The chairman's thought-provoking question ignited a lively debate among the participants in the workshop
Trong các đáp án, triggered = ignited: khơi mào.
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 23 to 27
When hosting an Olympic Games, a country has to take account of several considerations, among which the financial one is by far the most important. The costs of hosting the Olympics can (23)______ tens of billions of dollars, and it is commonplace for budgets to double or even triple. In addition to the direct costs of hosting the Games (the opening and closing ceremonies, athletes' village, security, etc.), cities often must build expensive new venues (24)______ lesser-known sports. Once constructed, sports venues often incur additional maintenance costs long after the Games have ended.
While costs are the (25)______ concern for a host city, there are other factors to consider. For one, an Olympic host city may receive substantial revenue from ticket sales, tourist spending, corporate sponsorship, and television rights. Cities such as Los Angeles (1984) and Seoul (1988) actually made a large profit from the Games they hosted. (26)______, hosting the Olympic Games confers prestige on a host city and country, which can lead to increased trade and tourism. The Olympics are also an opportunity to invest in projects (27)______ improve the city's quality of life, such as new transportation systems.
(Adapted from "Skillful Reading & Writing 4" by Mike Boyle and Lindsay Warwick)
The costs of hosting the Olympics can exceed tens of billions of dollars: chi phí tổ chức một kì Olympic có thể vượt quá 10 tỉ dollars.
* ... cities often must build expensive new venues for lesser-known sports: những thành phố thường phải xây dựng những địa điểm thi đấu cho những môn thể thao ít được biết hơn.
=> While costs are the primary concern for a host city: Trong khi chi phí là mối quan tâm chính của thành phố đăng cai.
- For example
- In addition
Dựa vào các câu trước đó: For one, an Olympic host city may receive substantial revenue from ticket sales, tourist spending, corporate sponsorship, and television rights (thành phố đăng cai Olympic có lẽ nhận được doanh thu lớn từ việc bán vé, chỉ tiêu du lịch, sự tài trợ từ các tập đoàn, và bản quyền phát sóng) Câu tiếp theo đề cập đến một lợi ích khác của việc đăng cai Olympic Games, do đó dùng In addition là hợp lý. => In addition, hosting the Olympic Games confers prestige on a host city and
Trong câu trên, chúng ta cần sử dụng cấu trúc mệnh đề quan hệ, và danh từ đứng trước là danh từ chỉ vật "projects" nên chúng ta sử dụng đại từ quan hệ "which".
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 28 to 34.
Body language is a vital form of communication. In fact, it is believed that the various forms of body language contribute about 70 percent to our comprehension. It is important to note, however, that body language varies in different cultures. Take for example, eye movement. In the USA a child is expected to look directly at a parent or teacher who is scolding him/her. In other cultures the opposite is true. Looking directly at a teacher or parent in such a situation is considered a sign of disrespect.
Another form of body language that is used differently, depending on the culture, is distance. In North America people don't generally stand as close to each other as in South America. Two North Americans who don't know each other well will keep a distance of four feet between them, whereas South Americans in the same situation will stand two to three feet apart. North Americans will stand closer than two feet apart only if they are having a confidential conversation or if there is intimacy between them.
Gestures are often used to communicate. We point a finger, raise an eyebrow, wave an arm – or move any other part of the body – to show what we want to say. However, this does not mean that people all over the world use the same gestures to express the same meanings. Very often we find that the same gestures can communicate different meanings, depending on the country. An example of a gesture that could be misinterpreted is sticking out the tongue. In many cultures it is a sign of making a mistake, but in some places it communicates ridicule. intimacy misinterpreted it.
The dangers of misunderstanding one another are great. Obviously, it is not enough to learn the language of another culture. You must also learn its non-verbal signals if you want to communicate successfully.
(Adapted from "Reading Academic English" by Judy Rapoport, Ronit Broder and Sarah Feingold)
Question 28: What is the passage mainly about?
- Misunderstandings in communication
- Interpretations of gestures in different cultures
- The significance of non-verbal signals in America
- Non-verbal communication across cultures
Dựa theo những dữ kiện của toàn đoạn văn (thu thập trong quá trình đọc lướt và trả lời những câu hỏi khác), đáp án chính xác là D: Sự giao tiếp không lời trong những văn hóa khác nhau.
Question 29: According to paragraph 1, when scolded by his/her parent or teacher, an American child is expected to ______.
- raise his/her eyebrows
- look directly at the person
- point a finger at the person
- stand close to the person
Dựa vào câu; In the USA a child is expected to look directly at a parent or teacher who is scolding him/her. (Tại Mỹ đứa trẻ được trông đợi sẽ nhìn thẳng vào ba/mẹ hoặc giáo viên khi họ la mắng nó.)
Question 30: The word "intimacy" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ______.
* intimacy = closeness: sự thân thuộc, sự quen thân.
Question 31: The word "misinterpreted" in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to ______.
* misinterpreted = misunderstood: hiểu lầm, hiểu sai
Question 32: The word "it" in paragraph 3 refers to ______.
- the country
- an example
- sticking out the tongue
- making a mistake
Dựa vào đoạn: An example of a gesture that could be misinterpreted is sticking out the longue. In many cultures it is a sign of making a mistake, but in some places it communicates ridicule. Trong đoạn trên, từ "it" thay thế cho cụm từ "sticking out the longue".
Question 33: As stated in the passage, in order to communicate successfully with people from another culture, it is advisable for a person ______.
- to travel to as many countries as possible
- to use the body language of the people from that culture
- to learn only non-verbal signals of that culture
- to learn both the language and non-verbal signals of that culture
Dựa vào đoạn: Obviously, it is not enough to learn the language of another culture. You must also learn its non-verbal signals if you want to communicate succesfully: Hiển nhiên, học ngôn ngữ của văn hóa khác là chưa đủ. Bạn cũng phải học những dấu hiệu không lời nếu bạn muốn giao tiếp thành công.
Question 34: Which form of body language is NOT mentioned in the passage?
- eye movement
Gesture: đề cập trong đoạn 3 • Distance: đề cập trong đoạn 2 • eye movement: đề cập trong đoạn 1.
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 35 to 42.
The green building movement, started in the 1970s as a way to reduce environmental destruction, is changing the way buildings are constructed. In the early years, green builders were a small minority, and their goals of reducing the environmental impact of buildings were considered unrealistic. Now, however, the movement is growing, as builders have been able to take advantage of new technology.
Green builders try to make use of recycled materials, which means less waste in dumps. Also, they reduce environmental impact by reducing the energy requirements of a building. One way is to provide an alternative, non-polluting source of energy. First, with solar panels, it is possible to produce electricity from the rays of the sun. Once installed, they provide energy at no they cost and with no pollution.
Another solution is to reduce the amount of energy required in a building. It is possible to cut electricity use noticeably by improving natural lighting and installing low-energy light bulbs. To reduce the amount of fuel needed for heating or cooling, builders also add insulation to the walls so that the building stays warmer in winter and cooler in summer.
One example of this advanced design is the Genzyme Center of Cambridge, the most environmentally responsible office building in America. Every aspect of the design and building had to consider two things: the need for a safe and pleasant workplace for employees and the need to lessen the negative environmental impact. 75 percent of the building materials were recycled materials, and the energy use has been reduced by 43 percent and water use by 32 percent, compared with other buildings of the same size.
In other parts of the world, several large-scale projects have recently been developed according to green building principles. One of these is in Vauban, Germany, in an area that was once the site of army housing. The site has been completely rebuilt with houses requiring 30 percent less energy than conventional ones. These houses, heated by special non-polluting systems, are also equipped with solar panels.
A larger project is under way in China. The first phase of this project will include houses for 400 families built with solar power, non-polluting bricks, and recycled wall insulation. In a second phase, entire neighborhoods in six cities will be built. If all goes well, the Chinese government plans to copy these ideas in new neighborhoods across China.
Green building ideas, on a small or large scale, are spreading. Individuals, companies, and governments are beginning to see their benefits. Not only are they environmentally friendly, green buildings improve living and working conditions and also save money in the long run.
(Adapted from "Advanced Reading Power" by Beatrice S. Mikulecky and Linda Jeffries)
Question 35: Which of the following does the passage mainly discuss?
- Successful green building projects all over the world
- New technologies applied to constructing office buildings
- An environmentally friendly approach to constructing buildings
- Economic benefits of environmentally responsible buildings
Đáp án thể hiện đầy đủ ý chính của toàn bài là C: An environmentally friendly approach to constructing buildings: một cách tiếp cận thân thiện với môi trường đối với việc xây dựng những công trình. Các ý B, A, D chỉ thể hiện được một phần của bài.
Question 36: According to paragraph 1, the environmental goals set by green builders were initially considered unrealistic presumably because ______.
- there was an abundance of natural materials for the construction of conventional buildings
- there was a lack of green builders at the beginning of the 20th century
- the problems of environment destruction were not prevalent at the time
- the potential applications of technology to constructing green buildings were not recognised then
Dựa theo dữ liệu ở đoạn 1: In the early years, green builders were a small minority, and their goals of reducing the environmental impact of buildings were considered unrealistic. Now, however, the movement is growing, as builders have been able to take advantage of new technology (Trong những năm đầu tiên, người xây dựng công trình xanh là một thiểu số nhỏ, và mục tiêu giảm ảnh hưởng tới môi trường của những công trình được xem là không thực tế. Tuy nhiên, bây giờ xu hướng này đang gia tăng, bở
Question 37: The word "they" in paragraph 2 refers to ______.
- green builders
- recycled materials
- solar panels
- rays of the sun
Dựa theo thông tin ở cuối đoạn 2, "they" bổ sung và thay thế cho cụm danh từ "solar panels".
Question 38: The word "insulation" in paragraph 3 mostly means ______.
- devices that monitor changes in temperature
- materials that prevent heat loss and absorption
- systems that protect buildings from the sun's rays
- panels that convert solar energy into electricity
Dựa vào đoạn: To reduce the amount of fuel needed for heating or cooling, builders also add insulation to the walls so that the building stays warmer in winter and cooler in summer: để giảm bớt nhiên liệu cần cho việc đun nóng hoặc làm lạnh, những người xây dựng cũng thêm nguyên liệu ngăn cản sự mất nhiệt và sự hấp thụ nhiệt vào những bức tường để công trình ấm hơn trong mùa đông và mát hơn trong mùa hè.
Question 39: What is one common characteristic shared by the Genzyme Center of Cambridge and the project in Vauban, Germany?
- Both were built out of entirely recycled materials instead of conventional ones.
- Both were built based on green building principles, which reduces energy use considerably.
- Both took advantage of new insulation technology, which cuts down on construction costs.
- Both are housing complexes with special, non-polluting heating systems.
Dựa vào thông tin ở cuối đoạn 4, 75 percent of the building materials were recycled materials, and the energy use has been reduced by 43 percent and water use by 32 percent, compared with other buildings of the same size.
Question 40: The phrase "under way" in paragraph 6 mostly means ______.
- being inspected
- being certified
- being notified
- being launched
under way = being launched : được khơi đầu, bắt đầu
Question 41: Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 7 as a merit of green buildings?
- Proving more economical eventually
- Increasing work productivity
- Being friendly to the environment
- Improving living conditions
Dựa vào câu cuối bài: Not only are they environmentally friendly, green buildings improve living and working conditions and also save money in the long run • Improving living conditions: improve living and working conditions • Proving more economical eventually: save money in the long run • Being friendly to the environment: Not only are they environmentally friendly
Question 42: According to the passage, which of the following statements about green buildings is TRUE?
- They are more economical and produce no pollution.
- They are gaining in popularity in different parts of the world.
- They have only been built in technologically developed countries.
- They are environmentally responsible constructions with gardens.
Dựa theo thông tin ở đầu đoạn cuối, "Green building ideas, on a small or large scale, are spreading."
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that best combines each pair of sentences in the following questions.
Question 43: Joe has finished his first-aid course. He proves extremely helpful as a rescue worker.
- Although Joe proves extremely helpful as a rescue worker, he hasn't finished his first-aid course.
- Without finishing his first-aid course, Joe proves extremely helpful as a rescue worker.
- However helpful Joe proves as a rescue worker, he hasn't finished his first-aid course.
- Having finished his first-aid course, Joe proves extremely helpful as a rescue worker.
Câu D là câu có 2 mệnh đề, trong đó mệnh đề phụ đã được rút gọn chủ từ.
Question 44: His friends supported and encouraged him. He did really well in the competition.
- Such were his friends' support and encouragement that he couldn't do really well in the competition.
- Had it not been for his friends' support and encouragement, he couldn't have done so well in the competition.
- If his friends had given him support and encouragement, he could have done really well in the competition.
- No matter how much his friends supported and encouraged him, he couldn't do well in the competition
Trong 4 đáp án, A, B và C đều diễn tả sai ý nghĩa của câu văn. Đáp án chính xác là đáp án B (sử dụng dạng đảo ngữ của câu điều kiện loại 3).
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following questions.
Question 45: They expect that recent changes will bring about an overall improvement in the quality of the country's education.
- It is expected that recent changes are caused by an overall improvement in the quality of the country's education.
- Recent changes are expected to lead to an overall improvement in the quality of the country's education.
- It was expected that recent changes would result in an overall improvement in the quality of the country's education.
- The quality of the country's education is expected to be the consequence of recent changes.
Trong câu trên, chúng ta sử dụng quy tắc biến đổi câu chủ động thành câu bị động để viết lại câu mà ý nghĩa không thay đổi.
Question 46: She wasn't early enough to catch the bus.
- She didn't arrive late for the bus.
- She arrived too early for the bus.
- She wasn't late for the bus.
- She was too late to catch the bus.
Chúng ta sử dụng cấu trúc "too ... to" trong trường hợp trên. She wasn't early enough to catch the bus. => She was too late to catch the bus: Cô ấy đi trễ nên không bắt được xe buýt.
Question 47: "Don't forget to submit your assignments by Thursday," said the teacher to the students.
- The teacher ordered the students to submit their assignments by Thursday.
- The teacher reminded the students to submit their assignments by Thursday.
- The teacher allowed the students to submit their assignments by Thursday.
- The teacher encouraged the students to submit their assignments by Thursday.
"Don't forget to submit your assignments by Thursday," => "Đừng quên nột bài tập vào thứ 5 nhé! *Đây là cấu trúc một câu nhắc nhở nên đáp án chính xác là B.
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the underlined part that needs correction in each of the following questions.
Question 48: Most workers seems to be happy with their new working conditions.
Workers là số nhiều => sửa seems thành seem
Question 49: It is (A) the night of 5 November that people (B) in Britain light bonfires and have (C) fireworks as a (D) national tradition.
- the night of 5 November
- in Britain
Câu chẻ nhấn mạnh cụm trạng từ chỉ thời gian => the night of 5th November → on the night of 5th November
Question 50: They have carried out (A) exhausting research (B) into the effects of smartphones on schoolchildren's (C) behaviour and their (D) academic performance.
- academic performance
Exhausting (adj): làm (bạn) kiệt sức - Lỗi sai: không phù hợp về nghĩa. Sửa exhausting → exhaustive (adj): toàn diện, hết mọi mặt
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